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What is Webpack Externals?

Webpack has a naming problem, just like the rest of the (software) world. One tricky name in the Webpack world is “Webpack externals”. Webpack externals are simply variables that are declared outside of Webpack (e.g. imported in a script tag in an HTML document) and then made available for use within a Webpack bundle.

In practice, this means a Webpack application can use a dependency without actually having it included in the Webpack bundle. Instead it would be imported some other way (e.g. a script tag referencing a CDN) and Webpack will assume that dependency will be accessible as a global variable. Webpack externals basically performs a mapping from that global variable to some key you specify in config.

The process

So in order to consume Vue via a CDN from my Webpack bundle I would do the following:

  1. Load my dependency (Vue) into my HTML
  2. Configure externals, mapping the global that’s set from the CDN script to the import string I’d like to use
  3. Import using the import string from my externals mapping

Loading the dependency

<script src="<script src=""></script>">

This will load Vue onto the window object as window.Vue, or just a global variable Vue.

Configure externals

module.exports = {
  externals: {
    vue: 'Vue'

This performs a mapping, getting the global variable with the name on the right side (Vue) and making it available as the key on the left (vue).

Import the dependency

So now when my code says:

import Vue from 'vue';

Webpack externals does a mapping here that basically takes that code and changes the from piece of it to match the key that I already configured. So Webpack is essentially changing this behind the scenes to:

import Vue from window.Vue;

And that’s it. Webpack externals can be helpful if your Webpack bundle is running somewhere that already has certain dependencies loaded externally, like in a micro frontend situation. If used properly, this can help decrease your page load times and make things nicer for you as a developer and for your users.

Published Jul 21, 2020

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